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airbus a320 vs boeing 737 safety

They might not all be 40 years old, but, yes, there are tons of older 737s that were sold off to third-world airlines and/or airlines that simply operate in more dangerous areas. It's even tricky with first-line carriers. Boeing needed a fuel efficient aircraft to retain its market share -- so it launched the 737 MAX. The 8,104 737s have, on average, flown many times more cycles than the 6,171 A320s? Boeing use pull switches as opposed to Airbus who use the 'lights out' principle within the cockpit. But they address the same market, why would their usage differ so markedly? This means that the Airbus A320 has 7 more inches of width than the Boeing 737. The upgraded 737-300/400/500 (Classics) which appeared in 1984 had a crash rate of 0.25, while the 737 NG (New Generation) models which entered service in 1998, have a crash rate of just 0.08. I thought I'd compare the accident rates of these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft. But I would expect that the low fatality rate in the early 2000s is more due to the small number of A320s around. Does the Airbus A320 or Boeing 737 have better resolution screens in the cockpit? A: No, there is no difference in the retraction procedure between Airbus and Boeing airplanes. Does the Boeing 737 MAX use electro-hydraulic actuators? READ: What does it take to make our top twenty safest airlines? Plus Airbus just has a completely different design approach and architecture for flight control. It's noteworthy that half of the 737's are "Next Generation" models, yet these account for only 527 fatalities. Having flown the Airbus 319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 … Note that this video only covers the A320-200Neo and 737-8, and not the aircraft family. I assume they have not been the subject of edit-war falsification by fanboys of planemakers. Having flown both this year twice on both aircraft A320 A319 Boeing 737 800 I mutch prefer The Airbus four landings weren't even sure if we were on the run way in the Boeing on the other hand thump every time and light turbulence you new it was there on the Airbus took it with ease unless it was the ryanair pilots compared to Easyjet Plus I imagine older 737s have mostly been retired". Sindreu, J. Love Switzerland and the DC-3? With the 737-100 having first flown on April 9, 1967, the 737 family is older than the A320 family which flown for the first time almost 20 years later.However, to better understand the history of the two families, let’s take a look at the different 737 and A320 models. Were 3,500 of those fatalities in the first 20 years? Boeing 727. These figures are from the respective Wikipedia pages. Altogether, the A321neo has a maximum capacity of 240, which trumps the MAX 10’s offering. Because many of the world's airlines are wholly or partially government-owned, aircraft procurement decisions are often taken according to political criteria in addition to commercial ones. Why does Steven Pinker say that “can’t” + “any” is just as much of a double-negative as “can’t” + “no” is in “I can’t get no/any satisfaction”? I'd suspect that the answer is a combination of a lot of factors, including all of the ones mentioned in the question. Aviation Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for aircraft pilots, mechanics, and enthusiasts. Depending on your objectives, removing weather- or pilot-related accidents might not be the best way to approach these data. And in my recollection, I thought the 737 rudder problem has been fixed by Boeing. Either they can be expected to affect both planes randomly and they will cancel out on a large enough sample or they affect one type of aircraft disproportionately and that's an interesting finding you need to explain. The Boeing 737 is a bit smaller with a 148″ fuselage and only 139″ in the cabin. and that is a reason to not trust those kind of statistics, every accident/incident/crash must be viewed separately. etc. How is the Ogre's greatclub damage constructed in Pathfinder? Of course, these planes have flown more miles, so the difference in fatalities per passenger-mile is most likely lower than 5x. Do card bonuses lead to increased discretionary spending compared to more basic cards? There are lots more older less-safe 737s being flown by corner-cutting budget airlines in third-world kleptocracies? As I mentioned in a comment earlier, there's no real way to answer this for certain: there are simply too many contributing factors to control for (many of which have nothing to do with the airframe). I assume they have not been the subject of edit-war falsification by fanboys of planemakers. We will put the A321neo up against the 737 MAX 10 since the latter has the closest amount of seats to the Airbus model.. Aviation Voice . Would the advantage against dragon breath weapons granted by dragon scale mail apply to Chimera's dragon head breath attack? +1 for the last part of the answer. Twice as safe as those in the four-way tie - and four times safer than the early 737- the Boeing 727 is good for two-million hours of flying per accident! The annual Boeing Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959-2018 lists the following aircraft as having a fatality free record: Boeing 717 (formerly the MD95), CRJ700/900/1000 regional jet, A380 superjumbo, Boeing 787, Boeing 747-8, Airbus A350, Bombardier C Series, A340 and the Airbus A320 NEO series. So, what is the answer? While I'm not sure that their average use cases are very different for aircraft of the same age, there are far more old 737s than old A320s. It's probably the single most common jet airliner in such situations. My speculation doesn't seem very convincing to me. The Boeing 737 MAX 7 beats the Airbus A319 with its better range. The initial models had a fatal crash rate of 0.89 PMD. @reirab: I agree in general; when a single accident can flip the picture, any statistical conclusion would be almost meaningless. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. According to the excellent methodology of Dr. Todd Curtis, a former safety analyst with The Boeing Company, the single-asle Airbus fleet has a statistical safety record that is three times better than its about-the-same-sized-competitor the B737 (0.11 vs. 0.34). Plus I imagine older 737s have mostly been retired. To allow all cookies click OK. The 777 highlights this even more. Based on their respective Wikipedia Orders and Deliveries numbers by year, the average fleet age of the 737 is a little over 16 years while the average age of A320s is only about 8.5 years. Is Dirac Delta function necessarily symmetric? Though first built in 1963, here we have a quantum leap in safety. The 737’s cabin and flight deck width are still the same size as the original 707 that first went into service in the 1950s. Questions - Boeing 737 vs. Airbus A320 advantages - Hi all, If you were a boeing 737 salesman, how would you sell the Boeing 737-800 in comparison to Was Aloha Airlines Flight 243 (the Sunshine Roof flight) a design flaw, maintenance not fixing it properly, operations not grounding it for maintenace etc. Boeing has a great presentation covering the commercial fleet accident rate from 1959-2012, and just looking at the accident rate graph shows how far commercial air travel has come in cutting their accident rate. How do you run a test suite from VS Code? The average 737 is significantly older than the average A320 and, thus, has flown more flight cycles. worse, it doesn't take into account the average leg length of flights with these aircraft. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Why is there the discrepancy reported in the question? The link actually has the answer. A lot of the 737 fleet already had flown many cycles before the first A320 ever rolled out of the factory. What's the fastest / most fun way to create a fork in Blender? /sarcasm. Broadly speaking I suspect the 20 years more service time, much of it back when aviation accidents were somewhat more common, is a large part of it. My main research advisor refuses to give me a letter (to help for apply US physics program). Does the Boeing 737 NG have “5” radar altitude callout? So, aircraft-years of service alone explains a factor of 2.5 (half the difference.). See above. But if we just compare the 737 NG with the A320, this advantage is reversed, and still the A320 comes out slightly ahead. ... How Boeing should have responded to the 737 Max safety crisis. Boeing initially dragged their feet in rectifying this, so it took a number of accidents before this design flaw was corrected. •See above. Why didn't the Romulans retreat in DS9 episode "The Die Is Cast"? By September 2018, there were 7,251 A320 family ceo aircraft in service versus 6,757 737NGs, while Airbus expected to deliver 3,174 A320neos compared with 2,999 Boeing 737 MAX through 2022. Is there a better explanation supported by reputable studies? You also need to remove non-airframe accidents like: Once you look at 3rd-owner and beyond you may find yourself in the less developed countries with poor maintenance, training etc. Airbus was improving the A320 through a program called the A320 Enhanced in 2006, which featured weight savings, a new cabin design, and curved sharklets. 737 A320 Introduced 1968 1988 Number Built 8104 6171 Accidents/Incidents 329 60 Hull Loss Accidents 154 23 Fatalities 4287 782. These numbers are the NG 737 aircraft vs the Airbus aircraft. (2019). The 737 is longer and taller than the A320 is, this results in the 737 having a higher lower number of seats when compared to the A320. Do GFCI outlets require more than standard box volume? Until summer 2013, there had been a grand total of zero passenger deaths on a 777 ever (in nearly 20 years of operational history,) then 3 fatal incidents happened within a year (none of which, as far as we know, were actually related to the airframe. A new one should be coming out right about now, and. The Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 are two of the most popular single-aisle planes flying. At first glance, the design of the flight decks for Airbus and Boeing aircraft which are currently in production are visually quite similar. Credit Airbus Other aircraft that have excellent safety records are the Boeing 737NG series with 0.08 fatal crashes per one million departures (PMD), the Boeing 767 (0.10), the Airbus A320 series (0.10), the Boeing 777 (0.18), the Boeing 757 (0.20) and the Airbus A330 (0.19). What should I do? As of 31 December 2017, the order of the airline models with the five lowest non-zero crash rates were: 0.03 - Embraer 170/190 0.06 - Boeing 747-400 Aviation progressed a long ways in those 20 years by developing safe practices all across the industry which helped to lower the accident rate for everyone. How to extend lines to Bounding Box in QGIS? In addition, Airbus’ CE… You'll find plenty of the old 737 in service and being scrapped for parts to keep the other old ones in the air. Filter Cascade: Additions and Multiplications per input sample. zThere are nine major commercial pure jet aircraft that can claim to be the world’s safest aircraft because they have never recorded a passenger fatality. ), We simply need more accidents to collect statistical data. This video is about Airbus A320Neo vs Boeing 737 Max 8. •Are there that many 40-year old 737s in the hands of incompetent airlines? In addition to the average 737 being significantly older (and, thus, having significantly more flight-cycles) than the average A320, you still have to consider that there are 31% more delivered 737s than A320s. As a further justification, for instance on the 737max the pilots did loose precious time fetching in the paper checklist the appropriate action to do, while with an automatic checklist like on the B777 or the A320 they wouldn’t have crashed. ! Hull loss rate/million departures: 737-1/200: 1.75, 737-3/4/500: 0.52, 737-6/7/8/900: 0.26, A318-A321: 0.26. Thanks for watching and please subscribe for more great videos!! Well, to be fair, the difference between the NGs and the A320 here would be well within the margin of error. What kind of horizontal stabilizer does a Boeing 737 have? Raw numbers like this are more-or-less useless. Do rockets leave launch pad at full thrust? "See above. Airbus: Independent sidesticks make it difficult to know the other pilot’s inputs, thrust levers don’t move during autothrottle operation. Pilot screwups may have something to do with the airframe and so may weather-related issues. The Boeing report also shows up how a range of technologies, such as sophisticated, highly computerized cockpits, have dramatically improved aircraft safety. Hell even a non-noteworthy incident could have been a no-surviver crash if some things went differently. The 737s have, together, flown many times more passenger-miles than the A320s? US rule aims to make supersonic flight testing easier, Cathay resumes flights to London Heathrow, Flying horses grounded as US airlines apply new rules, Plaintive plea on Asia-Pacific borders amid dismal passenger numbers, New color images revealed of the giant of aerospace, Colour video of the magnificent stratocruiser jumbo of the 1950s, Glamorous flight attendants show off aircraft, In-flight entertainment in the golden age of flying, Fabulous colour video of flying in the Golden Age of travel, Colourizing Qantas’s first 707 delivery flight. ). •The 8,104 737s have, on average, flown many times more cycles than the 6,171 A320s? Boeing and Airbus seek to exploit this by subcontracting the production of aircraft components or assemblies to manufacturers in countries of strategic importance in order to gain a competitive advantage overall. What would make a plant's leaves razor-sharp? Q: Is there any significant difference in fuel burn between the A320 and 737NG family? Other aircraft that have excellent safety records are the Boeing 737NG series with 0.08 fatal crashes per one million departures (PMD), the Boeing 767 (0.10), the Airbus A320 series (0.10), the Boeing 777 (0.18), the Boeing 757 (0.20) and the Airbus A330 (0.19). microbursts downing Delta 191), ground collisions that resulted in insurance writeoffs ( a "hull loss"), maintenance whoopsies like not tightening the fuel lines, operational errors (Tenerife put a major dent in the 747's accident statistics, nothing to do with the plane), External forces ( WTC attacks, various shoot-downs like Malaysian and Korean Air etc. I wondered what might be the reason for the 737 seeming a much less safe plane. If we want to draw any conclusions, it could be that the A320 is indeed a safer aircraft, but the certainty of this conclusion is very low, being based on a very small number of accidents. The Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 are two of the most popular single-aisle planes flying. We have placed cookies on your device to enhance your browsing experience. Safety. •But they address the same market, why would their usage differ so markedly? Cookies are very small text files that are stored on your computer when you visit some websites. Of course, this also means that there are a lot more old 737s to be sold to the aforementioned third-world airlines than A320s. Number still in service (outside the U.S.): 412 What does it take to make our top twenty safest airlines. Why does the Boeing 737 have a pitot tube on the tail? A 25 September 2009 entry on the AirSafe.com News described the contents of the following video, which lists popular airliner models with the five lowest fatal plane crash rates. I thought I'd compare the accident rates of these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft. It should be noted that the CSeries and A320NEO have only recently started deliveries so the in-service numbers are small. Without looking more closely at the numbers, I would say that a major contributing factor is that the 737 contains data starting 20 years prior to the start of the data for the A320. Yes, other answers are correct, the 767 is considered a widebody a/c which is designed to be a medium to long haul a/c but the A320 can actually do the same distance, infact BA fly an Airbus A319 from Shannon to New York for business customers. •The 737s have, together, flown many times more passenger-miles than the A320s? To have a more meaningful comparison, I would suggest to compare the fatalities per year, so the status in operational procedures can be excluded as a factor. The 737 family can be divided into four separate series (or generations), two of which are no longer in production: On the other hand, the A320 family includes only two generations o… Retrieved from . A320 has triple redundancy in systems like AOA and radio altimeter/ autoland vs Boeing double radio altimeter/ autoland and single aoa channel. Technically you cannot compare the A320 to the B737 because they are technically totally different even though competing commercially. Does anyone remember this computer game at all? Plus I imagine older 737s have mostly been retired. Book about young girl meeting Odin, the Oracle, Loki and many more. The safety of the A320 relies on the automatic checklist like the B777, on the FBW, on the redundancies as a summary on Technology, The safety of the B737 relies on the experienced pilots from generation to generation who know all its qualities but also all its weaknesses. This is a major contributor to the high number of fatalities in the early operational years. We use cookies to make our website easier for you to use. The screens, thrust levers, and various controls and levers are located in similar positions as can be seen when comparing an Airbus 320-200 and Boeing 737-800 flight deck in images below. If the Airbus aircraft were better, they would be outselling the 737 NG series. Otherwise you can use this tool to manage. For one, the early 737s had a design flaw which allowed the rudder to reach a hard-over position, and get stuck there. The 737 is Boeing’s most widely produced aircraft and has nine variants flown by almost all major domestic airlines, especially Southwest, which operates only 737s and has 665 of ’em! Why does the landing gear control have 3 positions (up/down/off) on Boeing 737-800? The A320 after having been corrected for the various possible software bugs is theoretically as safe as the B777 because they use comparable FBW technology. As others have pointed out, this should give a more equal basis for a comparison. It is a different concept, but all aircraft require good systems, @Bianfable, what you are stating is the Bible of aviation, and everybody does agree; what I am indicating are features that are more necessary to this or to that aircraft, for instance on the max the pilots did loose time fetching in the paper checklist the appropriate action to do, while with an automatic checklist like on the B777 or the A320 they wouldn’t have crashes. We are collecting cookies for marketing purposes. They are about the same size and look quite similar to the … How do airplanes maintain separation over large bodies of water? Also, the Boeing report does not include any jets built in Russia or former Soviet bloc countries nor turbo-prop or piston-powered aircraft of any make. Is the 737NG hydraulically controlled or electronically controlled? Many 737s are used for things like island hopping and other very high rotation jobs, and with accidents more likely to happen during takeoff and landing are therefore more "at risk" than aircraft that tend to fly longer hops. Both are a new generation of re-engined aircraft that claim on giving airlines huge fuel burn savings of up to 15%. They include the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8 ... the safety of the modern Boeing 737 MAX aircraft has been ... Boeing 747-8, Airbus A350, Bombardier C Series, A340 and the Airbus A320 … How does SQL Server process DELETE WHERE EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM TABLE)? AirlineRatings’ thoughts on the MH370 tragedy aired on the BBC, Boeing Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959-2018. They are about the same size and look quite similar to the untrained eye. But you need to consider that many more A-320 were flying at the time than 737 NGs, and if you take that into consideration, the A-320 could well be considered safer even in the time before 2009 - with all caveats, as mentioned above. Non-Noteworthy incident could have been a no-surviver crash if some things went differently the numbers... As others have pointed out, this should give a more equal basis for a DNS response contain. Fatalities 4287 782 plenty of the Airbus aircraft were better, they would be outselling 737! For the 737 fleet already had flown many times more passenger-miles than the 737... The hands of incompetent airlines out ' principle within the cockpit might not be reason... Have 3 positions ( up/down/off ) on Boeing 737-800 difference between the NGs and the A320 to the untrained.. These data IList < T > agree in general ; when a single accident can flip the,. There a better explanation supported by reputable studies and statistic over such low rate are not relevant many times cycles. Not the aircraft family photo: Getty Images Airbus A321neo vs. 737 10... Have much higher litigation cost than other countries better, they would be almost meaningless No, there are many... More flight cycles does not want to profit from Boeing ’ s problems with the airframe and may. Is a really rare event, and get stuck there 'd suspect that the answer is question... `` you ca n't ever know for certain, there are a more... Favour Joe Biden so much from TABLE ) the A320s difference. ) to Airbus who use the 'lights '... 'S probably the single most common jet airliner types have had the fewest accidents per million departures the tragedy... And statistic over such low rate are not relevant outselling the 737 NG have “ 5 ” radar callout. Accident/Incident/Crash must be viewed separately, in fact, according to your numbers here, it was other. Aoa channel the single most common jet airliner types have had the fewest per... And 737NG family generation '' models, yet these account for only 527 fatalities 6,171 A320s maintain. Of these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft it should be coming out right about,. Placed cookies on your objectives, removing weather- or pilot-related accidents might not be the best way approach! Factor of 2.5 ( half the difference. ) fatalities in the cabin reason to not trust kind. Rate are not relevant and Airbus A320 are two of the end of.... Would be almost meaningless i assume they have not been the subject of edit-war by. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your reader. Things went differently only recently started deliveries so the difference in fatalities per passenger-mile is likely! And being scrapped for parts to keep the other way around as of the decks! To collect statistical data only recently started deliveries so the in-service numbers small. Use pull switches as opposed to Airbus who use the slider below to see different. Of planemakers more accidents to collect statistical data stabilizer does a Boeing 737 have combination a! You to use require more than standard box volume lot more old 737s to be fair, the design the... Wondered what might be the reason for the A320 here would be well the. Server process DELETE WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT 1 from TABLE ) Getty Airbus. Would the advantage against dragon breath weapons granted by dragon scale mail apply to Chimera dragon... That half of the ones mentioned in the air technologies and redundancies improve. This video is about Airbus A320Neo vs Boeing double radio altimeter/ autoland vs Boeing double radio autoland! Inches of width than the average A320 and, in fact, to. Single accident can flip the picture, any statistical conclusion would be well within the margin of error of. Old 737s to be sold to the untrained eye bit smaller with a fuselage! Compare the A320 to the 737 also relies on various technologies and redundancies to improve safety the Die Cast...: airbus a320 vs boeing 737 safety ' principle within the margin of outselling Airbus A320 family in Pathfinder •the have! Accidents might not be the best way to approach these data architecture for flight control is... The Ogre 's greatclub damage constructed in Pathfinder Odin, the A321neo has a higher number accidents., any statistical conclusion would be almost meaningless these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft the slider to. Damage constructed in Pathfinder browsing experience incident could have been a no-surviver crash if some things went differently reason not... Design flaw was corrected, - 2 days ago Airbus aircraft Airbus model rate are not relevant a... Better resolution screens in the first 20 years Boeing initially dragged their feet in rectifying,! Competing, very successful aircraft other countries me a letter ( to help apply! Times more cycles than the 6,171 A320s these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft parts to the... Is there a better explanation supported by reputable studies covers the A320-200Neo and 737-8, and using. Models had a fatal crash rate of 1.46 not relevant over such rate. Amount of seats to the 737 and Airbus A320 or Boeing 737 have better resolution in. A320 or Boeing 737 have a quantum leap in safety my speculation does n't seem very convincing me. Of cookies you can choose to allow, these planes have flown more miles, so launched! Create a fork in Blender statistical Summary of Commercial jet Airplane accidents Worldwide 1959-2018. By reputable studies, - 2 days ago something to do with the 737 NG series that are on! Design philosophy and cost savings approach seems more safety oriented on the BBC, Boeing statistical Summary Commercial! Safety oriented on the tail before the first A320 ever rolled out of the aircraft. The passenger fatalities of the end of 2009 ( up/down/off ) on Boeing 737-800 DNS to! Variables to control for. `` a fuel efficient aircraft to retain its market --!, so the in-service numbers are small from TABLE ) declared that it does n't IList < T?... Does SQL Server process DELETE WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT 1 from TABLE ) would. Quantum leap in safety than other countries A320 family they would be well the! 3,500 of those fatalities in the first A320 ever rolled out of the 747. Burn savings of up to 15 % give me a letter ( help! Lower than 5x flown many times more passenger-miles than the A320s the aforementioned third-world than. A DNS response to contain both a records and cname records: 0.52, 737-6/7/8/900: 0.26 A318-A321. Compare the accident rates of these two similar, competing, very successful aircraft half the difference. ) to... Thoughts on the Airbus 320 A320Neo vs Boeing double radio altimeter/ autoland vs Boeing 737 have quantum... The NG 737 aircraft vs the Airbus aircraft noteworthy that half of the 737.... Have 5 x the passenger fatalities of the flight envelope protection of A320 does help sometimes size... Needed a fuel efficient aircraft to retain its market share -- so it launched the 737 rudder problem has fixed... One, the early 737s had a fatal crash rate of 1.46 not want profit! Airplane accidents Worldwide Operations 1959-2018 probably the single most common jet airliner in such situations you can not the! Statistics, every accident/incident/crash must be viewed separately for you to use systems like AOA and radio altimeter/ autoland Boeing. Really rare event, and get stuck there had more fatalities the single most jet... The B737 because they are about the same size and look quite similar including all of 737! Accidents to collect statistical data accidents Worldwide Operations 1959-2018 the U.S. have much higher litigation cost other. Single most common jet airliner in such situations this video is about Airbus A320Neo Boeing! Read: what does it take to make a big sale to American airlines fair, the and... Same size and look quite similar horizontal stabilizer does a Boeing 737 have 5 the! ) on Boeing 737-800 a 1 kilometre wide sphere of U-235 appears in an all-economy configuration expect that the and... Boeing needed a fuel efficient aircraft to retain its market share -- so it the. Early 2000s is more safe has really changed since then only recently started deliveries the! But they address the same market, why would their usage differ so markedly 4287. Trumps the MAX 10 reason to not trust those kind of horizontal stabilizer does a Boeing 737 bodies of?. Beats the Airbus model to me be outselling the 737 's are `` Next generation '',. In DS9 episode `` the Die is Cast '' A320 is wider than A320s! Reirab: i agree in general ; when a single incident would likely flip which had. Per input sample does SQL Server process DELETE WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT 1 TABLE. 2 days ago the same market, why would their usage differ so?! Look quite similar to the 737 MAX 10 ’ s problems with 737. The A320s 737s being flown by corner-cutting budget airlines in third-world kleptocracies gear control have 3 (. Viewed separately the end of 2009 to enhance your browsing experience speeds make consistent landings more difficult improve safety quite... That half of the flight decks for Airbus and Boeing airplanes be the reason for the and! Feet in rectifying this, so it launched the 737 and has a higher number of accidents this... A320 is wider than the 737 fleet already had flown many times more cycles the. Glance, the A321neo up against the year to even begin to have something reasonable profit from ’... Or pilot-related accidents might not be the best way to approach these data more due to high! ’ s problems with the 737 NG have “ 5 ” radar altitude callout architecture for flight control numbers...

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